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The Battle of Arras, a Franco-British counter-attack on 21 May, led the Germans to continue to attack north towards the channel ports, rather than advance southwards over the Somme. Apprehension about another Franco-British counter-attack led to the Arras halt order being issued by the German higher commanders on 21 May. The neighbouring XV Corps was held back in reserve and a division of the XLI Korps was moved eastwards, when the corps was only 31 miles from Dunkirk.

Later in the day, the 40th Division moved up beyond the Bresle from Senarpont to Aumale to reinforce parties of Royal Engineers and an anti-tank battery. The 6th Infantry Division was advancing on the German left and the 32nd Infantry Division on the German right was 10 mi away. The IX Corps position on the Bresle was vulnerable to being cut off in the Havre peninsula. A brigade group of the 52nd Division was due from England on 7 June and the War Office urged the French command to arrange a line of retreat south-east, away from the dead-end of Le Havre, towards the BEF lines of communication south of the Seine.

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However, the wholesalers require more working capital, as they have to maintain a large stock and generally sell goods on credit, increasing the length of the operating cycle. Besides, a manufacturing company requires a huge amount of working capital as it has to convert its raw material into finished goods, sell the goods on credit, maintain the inventory of raw materials and finished goods. The business operating cycle is vital because it helps to indicate how capable a company is of moving inventory when it comes to operations. A company could be making a lot of money, but if its operating cycle is too long, it could drain its resources faster than they can be replenished. A shorter operating cycle is ideal for running efficiently, which can be accomplished in a few ways.


B and C brigades of the Beauman Division were defending the Béthune–Andelle line from the Seine to Dieppe. On 10 May 1940, the Germans began Fall Gelb an offensive against France, Belgium and the Netherlands. On 20 May, the Germans captured Abbeville at the mouth of the Somme River, cutting off the Allied troops in Northern France and Belgium.

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However, if a company is getting a short period of credit from its suppliers, then it will require more working capital. Excess of current assets over current liabilities is known as Net Working Capital. Current liabilities are a source of funds for acquiring current assets and are to be paid within an accounting year.

Brook was told that on return to France he would come under the authority of Weygand. In France, Fonblanque was still in command of the lines-of-communication troops of the original BEF and lieutenant-generals Henry Karslake and James Marshall-Cornwall were assisting with command. A brigade group of the 52nd Lowland Division departed for France on 7 June but Brooke took until 12 June to arrive. But this contradicted the plans given by Weygand for the IX Corps retirement and Dill hesitated, ignorant that delays in issuing the orders had made the retreat plan impossible.

Creation of Debtors Due to Credit Sales

A company’s objective regarding the cash disbursement cycle should be to increase the cycle time, or delay making payments until they are due. Cash payments describe cash flowing out of a business resulting from operating activities, investment activities and financing activities. What this means is that investing in operational process improvement can help reduce costs, increase speed, and improve quality, which will likely lead to increased profits at the end of the day. For example, an efficient sales force can increase the company’s market share and reduce the time it takes to acquire new customers. An efficient operational process can also help reduce other costs like marketing, finance, etc.

Hence, it can be said that the length of the operating cycle directly affects the requirements of the working capital of an organisation. The companies which sell goods throughout the season require constant working capital. A market flourishes during the boom period which results in more demand, more stock, more debtors, more production, etc., ultimately leading to the requirement for more working capital.

Related to interrupted operation cycle

Debtor completed contract method days is often regarded as one of the major tools to analyze the product demand and the importance of the particular product compared with its peers. In a credit sale, the cash is not received immediately, it is received as per the contract made with the distributors or retail shops. They generally make quick payment when there is a good demand for the product from the consumer’s end and vice versa. Thus, the amount always keeps on circulating or revolving from cash to current assets and back again to cash.

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Accounts Receivable Period is equal to the number of days it takes to receive payment for goods and services sold. The Operating Cycle is calculated by getting the sum of the inventory period and accounts receivable period. The credit policy and related payment terms, since looser credit equates to a longer interval before customers pay, which extends the operating cycle. A shorter cycle is preferred and indicates a more efficient and successful business. A shorter cycle indicates that a company is able to recover its inventory investment quickly and possesses enough cash to meet obligations. Troops had arrived to begin work, despite a lack of civil engineering machinery.

Karslake had already made representations to the CIGS about the lack of unity of command but on 6 June, Dill had written to the Swayne Mission at Georges’s HQ that Brooke could be expected the following week and that the 52nd Division was due soon. Dill sent Pownall to France to discuss the new BEF with the French and to liaise with British commanders and Karslake told him that it was vital to withdraw the 51st Division before it was too late. Karslake also urged Pownall to get Lieutenant-General Alan Brooke to France and establish a corps headquarters, to unify the command of all British forces, not necessarily under the authority of Altmayer, the Tenth Army commander. Although Brooke had been placed in command of the new BEF on 2 June, he remained in Britain until 12 June, by when the 51st Division had been trapped and forced to surrender along with the rest of IX Corps. Operations obstructed French attempts to concentrate and the fear of air attack negated the mass and mobility of the French armies. German infantry moved forward against Saigneville, Mons, Catigny, Pendé, Tilloy and Sallenelle held by the 7th and 8th battalions, Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders , as other troops passed between them, the villages being too far apart for mutual support.

Generally, the terms say that the bill will be paid within a certain number of days from receipt of goods. In retail, this allows for items to be sent from the manufacturer or wholesaler before any actual money is exchanged, allowing for time to generate sales revenue. For retailers, this is where lead time and stocking time are the most important. When factoring in the number of days in this period, it is crucial to know how long a manufacturer will take to produce and ship the goods. Once the goods are received, the amount of time they spend on the shelf or not being bought is inventory time. On average, it takes the company 97 days to purchase raw material, turn the inventory into marketable products, and sell it to customers.


Conceptually, the measures the time it takes a company on average to purchase inventory, sell the finished inventory, and collect cash from customers that paid on credit. Days sales of inventory equal to the average number of days the company takes to sell its stock. Days sales outstanding on the other hand is the period in which receivables turned into cash.

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Manufacturing of the product − This is the phase where the raw materials are converted to finished goods. In other words, it is in a business’ best interest to shorten the business cycle over time. The easiest way is to shorten each of the three cycle sections by, at least, a small amount. The aggregate change that comes from the shortening of these sections can create a significant change in the overall business cycle. Also, high inventory turnover can reflect a company’s efficient operations, which in turn lead to increased shareholder value.

For example, businesses like airlines operate on longer cycles due to their reliance on expensive aircraft and employees who often work around the clock. They also make large quantities of these items and have little to no inventory to maintain. For example, take a look at retailers like Wal-Mart and Costco, which can turn their entire inventory over nearly five times during the year. We’ll now move to a modeling exercise, which you can access by filling out the form below.

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